NASA Asked by Trump Administration to Explore Placing Crew on SLS Rocket’s Debut Flight

 The Trump administration has directed NASA to study whether it is feasible to fly astronauts on the debut flight of the agency’s heavy-lift rocket, a mission currently planned to be unmanned and targeted to launch in late 2018, officials said on Friday.The study marks President Donald Trump’s first step in shaping a vision for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

NASA Asked by Trump Administration to Explore Placing Crew on SLS Rocket's Debut Flight

Under former President Barack Obama, the US space agency was working on the heavy-lift Space Launch System rocket and Orion deep-space capsule with the aim of sending astronauts to rendezvous with an asteroid in the mid-2020s, followed by a human expedition to Mars in the 2030s.

The request for the study from the new Republican president’s administration tweaks that plan by exploring whether to add a crew to an earlier test flight and perhaps setting the stage for a human return to the moon.

NASA officials said they do not feel compelled to fly the test mission with crew aboard, Bill Gerstenmaier, NASA’s head of human space flight, told reporters on a conference call.

“There’s not pressure to go do this,” Gerstenmaier said. “I find it encouraging that we were asked to go do this feasibility study.”

The study is expected to take about a month. Engineers are assessing hardware changes, schedule delays, additional costs and increased risks of flying a two-member crew on the first flight of the Space Launch System rocket, which is about four times bigger and more powerful than any current US booster.

 A NASA safety oversight panel on Thursday cautioned that the agency should have compelling reasons for adding crew to justify the extra cost, risk to human life and schedule delays.

“If the benefits warrant assumption of additional risk, we expect NASA to clearly and openly articulate their decision-processing rationale,” Patricia Sanders, head of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel, said at a meeting at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

If approved, the astronauts would fly aboard an Orion capsule, under development by Lockheed Martin Corp , and swing around the moon during an eight- to nine-day mission, similar to what the Apollo 8 crew accomplished in 1968.

Gerstenmaier said adding crew to the mission would not be worthwhile if it forced the flight to be delayed more than about a year.

The rocket’s second flight, which is to include crew, is targeted for August 2021. The study will explore what would be gained technically by having a crew aboard sooner.

US FCC Chairman Ajit Pai to Block Stricter Broadband Data Privacy Rules

 The US Federal Communications Commission will block some Obama administration rules that subject broadband providers to stricter scrutiny than websites, a spokesman said on Friday, in a victory for internet providers such as AT&T, Comcast and Verizon Communications.

US FCC Chairman Ajit Pai to Block Stricter Broadband Data Privacy Rules

The rules approved by the FCC in October in a 3-2 vote were aimed at protecting sensitive personal consumer data. Ajit Pai, the FCC chairman appointed by President Donald Trump, believes all companies in the “online space should be subject to the same rules, and the federal government should not favor one set of companies over another,” said FCC spokesman Mark Wigfield.

Pai plans by March 2 to delay the implementation the data security rules, Wigfield said. Some other aspects of the rules are under review by the White House Office of Management and Budget. A temporary stay is a first step toward permanently blocking the rules, analysts said Friday.

The rules would subject broadband Internet service providers to more stringent requirements than websites like Facebook, Twitter or Alphabet Inc’s Google.

Providers would need to obtain consumer consent before using precise geo-location, financial information, health information, children’s information and Web browsing history for advertising and internal marketing.

For less sensitive information such as email addresses or service tiers, consumers would be able to opt out.

Democratic FCC Commissioner Mignon Clyburn said in a statement Friday that “Chairman Pai is determined to take action that leaves consumers without a cop on the beat protecting their personal information from misuse by their broadband service provider.”

 Republican commissioners including Pai, said in October the rules unfairly give websites the ability to harvest more data than service providers and dominate digital advertising.

Pai said in October the FCC “adopted one-sided rules that will cement edge providers’ dominance in the online advertising market.” Google and Facebook account for about two-thirds of all digital ad revenue.

Former FCC Chairman Tom Wheeler, who authored the privacy rules, said on Friday that they are necessary because consumers have few options when it comes to broadband providers. “The fact of the matter is it’s the consumer’s information,” he said. “It’s not the network’s information.”

Berin Szoka, president of TechFreedom, said Pai’s decision was a good move because “because the real question isn’t a policy question but a legal one: does the FCC even have authority to regulate broadband privacy?”

4 Ways Online Libraries Are Changing the Face of Student Research

Before the internet changed how college students accessed information, the main source for gathering data was their campus library. However, after digital resources became available online, students began to turn away from libraries in favor of online research, which has caused these institutions to change how they offer students information. Today, the roles of libraries are still in flux, but there are several ways that online collections are now changing the face of student research.

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1.     Digital Librarians

One advantage to using a traditional library was that students could ask the librarian questions about how to find the information they needed and how to use it to the best of their ability. While keywords and advance search options might have replaced some of the duties of the librarian, students still might have questions that a site search might not answer.

To address this issue, some online libraries have added digital librarians that are available at certain times of the day. They can answer research questions, help students find older resources, and offer basic support for students who have little experience with researching.

2.     Multiple Borrowing Options

Traditional college campus libraries often carried books for required reading before the birth of the internet, but a major frustration that many students faced was not being able to get to them before they were checked out by others. Most libraries carried only so many copies of a book, and some students had to rely on other sources for their research.

Today’s online libraries, however, have solved this problem by offering PDF downloads, eBook lending, and digital borrowing systems that allow material to be either borrowed or purchased an indefinite number of times. This means that a class of thirty can all access the same book without having to wait for it to be returned by the previous user.

3.     Access to Archived Works

Some library archives are unusual or obscure and require archiving in a physical locale, as outlined in this infographic. However, many other archives are now available in online libraries and accessible to students whenever they need it. These archives, some of which contain classic works and historical data, can be a vital resource while researching because many digital libraries are now including photo archives as well as printed text. The addition of photos and video to these libraries can also be an advantage to students because they can be duplicated many times without a loss of quality.

4.     Resource Sharing

Students are often required to quote several sources for essays and scholarly reports, and online libraries are making this easier than over with resource sharing. Links to other verified material and websites can create a network for students that may allow them to build a reference page that would otherwise take up a great deal of time at a traditional library. Resource sharing may help students streamline the process of creating a works cited page, especially for larger projects.

The face of student research is always changing, and those involved in it must always find ways to overcome new challenges. However, online libraries are helping students by offering assistance and support in ways that may allow them to reach new academic heights.

US alleges systemic employment discrimination at Oracle

The U.S. government says Oracle routinely and systemically pays white men more than women and minorities and that it favors Asian candidates over others in product development and technical roles.20151027 openworld oracle cloud signs 100625232 orig

The allegations are contained in a lawsuit filed by the Department of Labor that represents the results of a two-year investigation into hiring practices at the Silicon Valley company.

The investigation was triggered by a regular compliance review by the government. As a federal contractor, Oracle is prohibited from engaging in discrimination based on race, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, or national origin.

As a result, Oracle stands to lose millions of dollars in federal contracts if the Labor Department can prove its case and the company doesn’t change its ways.

Oracle rejected the assertions.

“The complaint is politically motivated, based on false allegations, and wholly without merit,” the company said. Oracle didn’t elaborate on the political motivations it believes are at play.

The Labor Department alleges that Oracle refused to fully cooperate with the review and didn’t provide requests on employment data and records.

“Oracle refused to provide prior-year compensation data for all employees, complete hiring data for certain business lines, and employee complaints of discrimination,” the government said.

In its complaint, the Department of Labor has asked a judge to or Oracle to halt discriminatory hiring practices and compensate anyone found to have been disadvantaged by the alleged practices with lost wages, interest, and promotions.

The complaint comes a couple of weeks after the Department of Labor filed a lawsuit against Google for failing to hand over similar data as part of a compliance review. The lawsuit against Google didn’t allege any wrongdoing in hiring practices and was solely aimed at obtaining information.

Failure to patch known ImageMagick flaw for months costs Facebook $40k

It’s not common for a security-conscious internet company to leave a well-known vulnerability unpatched for months, but it happens. Facebook paid a US$40,000 reward to a researcher after he warned the company that its servers were vulnerable to an exploit called ImageTragick.facebook stock headquarters building

ImageTragick is the name given by the security community to a critical vulnerability that was found in the ImageMagick image processing tool back in May.

ImageMagick is a command-line tool that can resize, convert and optimize images in many formats. Web server libraries like PHP’s imagick, Ruby’s rmagick and paperclip, and Node.js’s imagemagick, used by millions of websites, are based on it.

The ImageMagick developers attempted to patch the ImageTragick flaw after it was privately reported to them, but their fix was incomplete. Soon after, hackers started exploiting them in widespread attacks to compromise web servers.

In October, a security researcher named Andrey Leonov was investigating Facebook’s content sharing mechanism, which generates a short description for external URLs shared by users, including a resized image grabbed from the shared page.

According to the researcher, he was hoping to find a Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF) or XML External Entity (XXE) vulnerability that he could report to Facebook and get a reward through the company’s bug bounty program.

When he failed to find such flaws, he got the idea to test for the ImageTragick flaw as a last resort, because Facebook was resizing images and there was a chance it was using this tool.

The first exploitation attempt failed because it was intended to execute a command on Facebook’s server that would call out a web page on an external server, Leonov explained in a blog post Tuesday.

The researcher then realized that the server might be behind a firewall that only allows requests to trusted servers. So he repeated his exploit, but this time used a DNS tunneling trick, where data is leaked to an external DNS server through DNS requests.

According to Leonov, this worked and he managed to get a directory listing from Facebook’s server relayed to his own server via DNS requests.

The researcher reported the vulnerability to Facebook on Oct. 16, and the company patched it three days later after confirming it. The company paid Leonov a $40,000 bounty, one of the largest rewards it has paid for a single vulnerability report.

For webmasters, this should serve as a reminder to patch the ImageTragick flaw if they haven’t until now. Security researcher Michal Zalewski published a blog post in May with various mitigation suggestions, including limiting which image formats ImageMagick is allowed to process and sandboxing the tool.

Zalewski believes that ImageMagick users should stop the tool entirely in favor of libraries such as libpng, libjpeg-turbo, and giflib. That’s because there’s a long history of vulnerabilities in ImageMagick, and tests performed with automated fuzzing tools revealed many potentially exploitable bugs.

Modern warfare: Death-dealing drones and … illegal parking?

A cloud of 3D-printed drones big enough to bring down the latest U.S. stealth fighter, the F35, was just one of the combat scenarios evoked in a discussion of the future of warfare at the World Economic Forum in Davos on Wednesday.davos guehenno cummings

Much of the discussion focused on the changes computers are bringing to the battlefield, including artificial intelligence and autonomous systems—but also the way the battlefield is coming to computing, with cyberwar, and social media psyops an ever more real prospect.

Former U.S. Navy fighter pilot Mary Cummings, now director of the Humans and Autonomy Lab at Duke University, delivered the first strike.

“The barrier to entry to drone technology is so low that everyone can have one, and if the Chinese go out and print a million copies of a drone, a very small drone, and put those up against an F35 and they go into the engine, you basically obviate what is a very expensive platform,” she said.

Drones could not only defeat the F35, on which the U.S. is spending what Cummins called “a ridiculous amount of money,” but also replace them, she said.

“ISIS can go out now and print drones with a 3D printer, can print thousands of drones with a 3D printer at very low cost, and arm them with conventional weapons or biological weapons for example, and basically result in much more devastation than an F35 in a surgical strike could cause,” she said.

That gave Dutch Minister of Defense Jeanine Hennis-Plasschaert pause for thought. “As I placed an order for I don’t know how many F35s, I just wonder if you could advise me whether I should continue or not?” she asked Cummings.

If the perceived value of an F35 is falling, though, so too is its cost. “The price is dropping, as I understood last week from Lockheed Martin,”Hennis-Plasschaert said.

In the Netherlands, there is a hot debate on the use of autonomous weapons, according to Hennis-Plasschaert. “It’s important that the deployment of such weapons must always involve meaningful human control,” she said. On the flip side, future enemies may not feel the same way: “We may face self-learning systems that are able to modify their own rules of conduct, and so there’s this ethical question.”

That’s not the only ethical question governments will need to answer, though.

With war no longer just about territorial control, “we run the risk of cyberspace being the battle space in the future,” Hennis-Plasschaert said.

Agreeing on limits to such conflicts will be difficult, as there is insufficient cooperation between governments at the moment.

The Law of the Sea treaty is a nice example, she said, “but to copy this for cyberspace is not easy.”

There are other boundaries to set when it comes to drone warfare, too.

“We have fully autonomous defensive weapons today,” Cummings said. She wondered why they are OK, while fully autonomous offensive weapons are not.

She raised the question of future autonomous missile technology that might be able to target a person not by their GPS coordinates, as today, but by their photograph. “That missile could do a better job of targeting a bad person than a human could,” she said. That scenario would make her reluctant to put a blanket ban on autonomous offensive weapons, she said.

Targeting a specific person through their photo “really is an illustration of the blurring of the line between war and peace,” said Jean-Marie Guéhenno
president and CEO of International Crisis Group and a former UN peacekeeper. The traditional way of dealing with that would be through a court or military tribunal, he said.

Airborne drones aren’t the only autonomous vehicles that might cause concern, Cummings said.

“When we go to an internet of things for vehicles, we will have a potential worldwide connectivity of terrorism, where terrorists can get into the network and start hacking driverless cars.”

Worse still, she said, they could hack a truck. They don’t even have to have explosives on board to cause trouble she said: Hacking half a dozen trucks in the Washington, D.C., area and stopping them in the right places could bring traffic to a halt and open the way for all sorts of mischief.

But what of social media? “Does the power of social media mean traditional military might is less important?” asked Shirley Ann Jackson, president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

Social media plays a role, said Lawrence Freedman, emeritus professor of war studies at King’s College London. “But I don’t think we should consider that new,” he said. “If we look back at the strategists of the past, what they called the psychological element was always there, was always important.”

So there you have it: In the future, war may not be declared by drones dropping destruction on our heads, but by a spate of unexplained illegal parking downtown.

AMD talks tough as it drums up support for 32-core Zen server chip

At CES, AMD launched its first Zen chips for PCs, called Ryzen. Next on deck is the 32-core server chip code-named Naples, which will ship in the coming months.Opteron A1100

Naples doesn’t have an official name yet, but the expectations are high. While Ryzen is set up for success in PCs, it’s a different story for Naples, which has to take on Intel’s juiced-up Xeon chips, which are used in most servers today.

AMD is trying to drum up excitement for Naples, which will be released in the first half of this year. It’s promoting Naples using the same tactic as it did for Ryzen—by talking about the performance benefits of the Zen CPU.

The Zen CPU core in Naples will provide the same performance benefits as in the Ryzen chips. AMD claims a 40 percent improvement in instructions per cycle, an important metric to measure CPU performance, compared to the company’s previous Excavator architecture.

Naples is notable for its high 32-core count, more than Intel’s Xeon chips, which have up to 24 cores. The Intel Xeon Phi supercomputing chip has up to 72 cores, but it isn’t targeted at mainstream socketed servers.

A higher core count matters as servers can do more, Forrest Norrod, senior vice president and general manager at AMD, said in a blog entry this week.

More data is moving into the cloud, which is putting more strain on servers in data centers. More cores will add processing power to help servers respond quickly to search requests, recognize images, and process uploaded videos faster. A server with a single CPU will be able to do as much as a current two-socket server, Norrod said.

AMD will come out with more Zen-based server chips with lower core counts, said Jim McGregor, principal analyst at Tirias Research.

A bulk of the servers today use quad-core chips, and the actual market for 32-core Naples will be limited. The server market is dominated by two-socket servers, while Intel’s 24-core chips go into a four- and eight-socket servers, which are used by companies like financial institutions that need a lot of horsepower.

“Intel has used Xeon to bleed the market” by forcing people to buy two-socket servers, and AMD could change that trend, McGregor said.

AMD will also pack in new memory bandwidth technology, which will boost server performance and possibly give it an edge over Xeon, McGregor said. It’s not clear what the technology will be, but it could be based on technology from Gen-Z, a consortium that is developing a high-speed throughput for use inside and outside servers.

AMD has surprised Intel in the server market in the past, only to self destruct. In 2003, it came out with the first 64-bit x86 server chip called Opteron, and Intel had to scramble to catch up. AMD lost the lead with its Opteron chips based on the Bulldozer architecture, which underperformed and were rejected by server makers.

The company killed whatever server market presence it had with another fateful decision to switch architectures. In 2013, AMD took the radical decision to put x86 on the backburner and reboot its server strategy around ARM architecture. AMD believed the power-efficient ARM chips would ultimately replace x86 in servers and have a 20 percent market share by 2017, but that hasn’t happened.

AMD shipped its first ARM server chips early last year, but ARM chips are virtually non-existent in servers today, though the promise remains.

Realizing its mistake, AMD reversed course, moving away from ARM for servers and switching back to x86 with Zen chips. In the meantime, Intel took advantage of AMD’s missteps and steadily rolled out new Xeon chips that supported the latest technologies. Intel now holds more than a 90 percent market share in server processors.

AMD has a big challenge with 32-core Naples. Companies like Google, Facebook and Amazon are building mega data centers with servers based on Xeon. Those companies have software stacks tuned closely to the processing, I/O, power, and throughput specifications of Xeon chips, and it could be tough for AMD to break into large accounts.

But AMD’s Naples is the first legitimate x86 challenger to Xeon in years. Google, Facebook, and Amazon could use AMD’s chip as leverage to get better chip prices from Intel. Xeon chips are expensive, and the margins make them highly profitable products for Intel.

Companies won’t make a switch to AMD overnight; it could take a year or more to ensure applications work on the new chips. But the competition is good, and AMD has nowhere to go but up in the server market, McGregor said.

AMD also has some technologies that could work to its advantage. It has mulled pairing a Zen server chip with its Vega GPU, which could be useful for tasks like machine learning. The company has also released a GPU targeted at machine learning called Radeon Instinct, but that’s effort is targeted toward Nvidia’s Tesla GPU, which dominates data centers.

Server wins for Naples are already coming AMD’s way. The company is also chasing the Chinese server market—which is growing fast—by licensing its Zen design to THATIC (Tianjin Haiguang Advanced Technology Investment Co.), a joint venture between AMD and a consortium of public and private Chinese companies.

Google merges YouTube, Play Music teams as it looks to create a streamlined experience

Google’s YouTube Music and Play Music apps have always been two ships in need of a single rudder, offering an overlapping set of features with separate logins and interfaces. Now, Google has taken the first step toward streamlining its music streaming experience.9 google play music tips tinker with music queue 7

According to a report by The Verge, Google has merged its YouTube Music and Google Play Music teams into a single unit, marking the first step toward a possible creation of a unified experience across a single app. While a subscription to Google Play Music or YouTube Red already includes access to the other service (and both have a decent chunk of content that can be accessed for free), Google told the Verge that improvements to the way the two services interact could be coming:

“Music is very important to Google and we’re evaluating how to bring together our music offerings to deliver the best possible product for our users, music partners and artists. Nothing will change for users today and we’ll provide plenty of notice before any changes are made.”

When asked about the rate of YouTube Red signups during Alphabet’s fourth-quarter conference call last month, Google CEO Sundar Pichai also alluded to some changes to Google’s music streaming strategy. “We have YouTube Red, YouTube Music and we do offer it across Google Play Music as well,” he said. “You will see us invest more, more countries, more original content. And we’ll bring together the experiences we have over the course of this year, so it’s even more compelling for users.”

Streaming is rapidly becoming one of the music industry’s biggest business, but it’s unclear how much of the pie Google actually owns. Spotify is still far and away the biggest music streaming service with some 40 million subscribers, but Apple Music is gaining fast, having crossed the 20 million threshold after just a year and a half. However, while Google has yet to release any subscriber numbers for either Play Music or YouTube Red, which are bundled, it has a built-in advantage by pre-installing the app on most Android phones, much like Apple does with Apple Music. And a simple, single experience across YouTube and Play Music could prove to be a serious threat to Spotify’s dominance.

This story, “Google merges YouTube, Play Music teams as it looks to create a streamlined experience” was originally published by Greenbot.

Now you can control your smart devices from your Pixel, no Google Home required

One of the best features of Google Home is the ability to control all of the smart devices in your house, letting you turn on the lights or set the thermostat without fiddling with any apps or controls. Now you can use Google Assistant on your Pixel phone to do the same thing.google assistant home

First spotted by Android Police, the settings menu in Google Assistant on the Pixel adds a new tab for Home control, letting you talk to your various devices without lifting a finger. And you don’t need you have a Google Home to do it. Previously, the Pixel could interact with the Home to operate Nest smart devices, but now your phone can do it all on its own.

That means you can control all of your Home-enabled smart devices, not just the ones that are owned by Alphabet. According to Android Police, the requirements appear to be version 6.12.19 of the Google app and Play Services 10.2.98. The new feature is a server-side one, however, so if you’re not seeing it on your phone, you may have to wait for Google to flip the switch.

Slowly but surely, Google Assistant on the Pixel is gaining feature parity with Google Home. While the overarching strategy for Google’s voice-operated AI is still hazy, it appears that we’re building toward some kind of a unified system, where saying “OK, Google” does the same things across all of our devices.

This story, “Now you can control your smart devices from your Pixel, no Google Home required” was originally published by Greenbot.

Intel: Cannonlake CPUs will be more than 15 percent faster than Kaby Lake

Upgrading CPU performance hasn’t been a priority for Intel in many years, but that could be changing.Intel chip

Intel’s upcoming Cannonlake chips will deliver a performance improvement of more than 15 percent compared to its Kaby Lake chips, said Venkata Renduchintala, president of the Intel Client and Internet of Things businesses and Systems Architecture Group.

Intel didn’t provide exact numbers at the company’s annual investor day Thursday, but the projection is based on the SysMark benchmark. Detailed performance improvement numbers will emerge over time.

intel roadmap cannonlake

Agam Shah

A slide from Intel’s investor day shows Intel’s projected roadmap toward its 8th-gen “Cannonlake” chip.

The performance improvements from Skylake to Kaby Lake topped out at 15 percent. The CPU performance boost for Cannonlake should be at least that, Intel said.

The first Cannonlake chips are scheduled to ship in the second half of this year. The chips—called 8th-generation chips on an Intel slide—could include Core i7 chips.

Intel showed a Cannonlake chip at CES. The chip will be the first made on Intel’s 10-nanometer process, which will deliver a substantial reduction in power consumption, Renduchintala said.

Intel may be trying to catch up with AMD, which is boasting a 40 percent performance improvement for its upcoming Ryzen chips. Ryzen’s numbers are based on IPC (instructions per cycle), an important performance metric.

The benefit of high-performance PC chips isn’t lost on Intel. The gaming market is exploding, especially eSports, and demand for high-performance Core i7 chips skyrocketed last year, Renduchintala said.

As markets like virtual reality heat up, buyers will be motivated to upgrade to Core i7 chips from Core i3 chips. The Core i7 chips today are up to 36 percent faster than Core i3 chips, Renduchintala said.

Chipmakers in past years focused on increasing performance by raising the clock frequency. But that made chips power hungry, and their focus shifted to adding cores, which boosted performance but also added battery life to laptops. Then the focus turned to integrating technologies like graphics and I/O buses inside processors. Gaming and virtual reality have brought a focus back to raw CPU performance.

There’s a limited scope for growth in the PC market, with gaming and VR being the bright spots, and both right now require high-performance CPUs. Unlike in the past, Intel doesn’t want to sell low-margin chips that would ultimately incur a loss.

Intel was “disciplined” with its PC business, and the focus was on high-margin products like Core i7 chips. Intel’s highest priced PC chip is the Core i7-6950X, which is priced at US$1,723, and it generates a high profit margin for Intel.

But Intel will have to contend with AMD, which is coming on strong with Ryzen. Analysts say Ryzen will start off strong in high-end gaming PCs based on the early hype, but then its success will depend on word-of-mouth recommendations. Ryzen’s subsequent success in consumer laptops and desktops will depend on PC makers adopting the chip.